Democrats emerged from the 2020 election with full management of the federal authorities and a pile of lingering questions. In non-public, occasion leaders and strategists have been wrestling with a quandary: Why was President Biden’s convincing victory over Donald J. Trump not accompanied by broad Democratic features down poll?

With that puzzle in thoughts, a cluster of Democratic advocacy teams has quietly launched a evaluate of the occasion’s efficiency within the 2020 election with a watch towards shaping Democrats’ strategy to subsequent yr’s midterm marketing campaign, seven folks acquainted with the hassle stated.

There may be explicit concern among the many Democratic sponsors of the initiative in regards to the occasion’s losses in Home districts with giant minority populations, together with in Florida, Texas and California, folks briefed on the initiative stated. The evaluate is probing tactical and strategic selections throughout the map, together with Democratic messaging on the economic system and the coronavirus pandemic, in addition to organizational selections like eschewing in-person canvassing.

Democrats had anticipated they might have the ability to broaden their majority within the Home, pushing into traditionally crimson areas of the Solar Belt the place Mr. Trump’s unpopularity had destabilized the G.O.P. coalition. As a substitute, Republicans took 14 Democratic-held Home seats, together with a dozen that Democrats had captured in an anti-Trump wave election simply two years earlier.

The outcomes shocked strategists in each events, elevating questions in regards to the reliability of marketing campaign polling and seemingly underscoring Democratic vulnerabilities in rural areas and right-of-center suburbs. Democrats additionally misplaced a number of contested Senate races by unexpectedly huge margins, at the same time as they narrowly took management of the chamber.

Strategists concerned within the Democratic self-review have begun interviewing elected officers and marketing campaign consultants and reaching out to lawmakers and former candidates in main Home and Senate races the place the occasion both gained or misplaced narrowly.

4 main teams are backing the hassle, spanning a spread of Democratic-leaning pursuits: Third Means, a centrist assume tank; Finish Residents United, a clean-government group; the Latino Victory Fund; and Collective PAC, a corporation that helps Black Democratic candidates.

They’re stated to be working with no less than three influential our bodies inside the Home Democratic caucus: the Congressional Black Caucus, the Congressional Hispanic Caucus and the New Democrat Coalition, a bunch of centrist lawmakers. The teams have retained a Democratic consulting agency, 270 Methods, to conduct interviews and analyze electoral information.

Democrats are feeling appreciable strain to refine their political playbook forward of the 2022 congressional elections, when the occasion can be defending minuscule Home and Senate majorities with out a presidential race to drive turnout on both aspect.

Dan Sena, a former government director of the Democratic Congressional Marketing campaign Committee, stated there was a recognition within the occasion that regardless of Mr. Biden’s victory the 2020 cycle had not been an unalloyed Democratic success story.

“I believe folks know that there was good and unhealthy popping out of ’20 and there’s a need to look underneath the hood,” Mr. Sena stated.

Among the many occasion’s targets, Mr. Sena stated, needs to be finding out their features in Georgia and in search of different areas the place inhabitants development and demographic change would possibly furnish the occasion with robust electoral targets in 2022.

“There have been a collection of things that actually made Georgia work this cycle,” he stated. “How do you start to search out locations like Georgia?”

Matt Bennett, senior vp of Third Means, confirmed in a press release that the four-way mission was geared toward positioning Democrats for the midterm elections.

“With slim Democratic majorities in Congress and the Republican Celebration within the thrall of Trump-supporting seditionists, the stakes have by no means been larger,” he stated. “Our organizations will present Democrats with an in depth image of what occurred in 2020 — with a variety of enter from voices throughout the occasion — so they’re totally ready to tackle the G.O.P. in 2022.”

Along with the skin evaluate, a number of the conventional occasion committees are stated to be taking narrower steps to scrutinize the 2020 outcomes. Involved a few drop-off in assist with Latino males, the Democratic Congressional Marketing campaign Committee performed focus teams within the Rio Grande Valley of Texas earlier this yr, one particular person acquainted with the examine stated. It isn’t clear exactly what conclusions emerged from the train.

Up to now there isn’t a equal course of underway on the Republican aspect, occasion officers stated, citing the overall lack of urge for food amongst G.O.P. leaders for grappling brazenly with Mr. Trump’s influence on the occasion and the wreckage he inflicted in key areas of the nation.

As a candidate for re-election, Mr. Trump slumped within the Democratic-leaning Higher Midwest — giving up his most vital breakthroughs of 2016 — and misplaced to Mr. Biden in Georgia and Arizona, two historically crimson states the place the G.O.P. has suffered an abrupt decline in recent times. The occasion misplaced all 4 Senate seats from these states throughout Mr. Trump’s presidency, three of them within the 2020 cycle.

However Mr. Trump and his political retainers have to date responded with fury to critics of his stewardship of the occasion, and there’s no obvious need to tempt his wrath with a complete evaluation that will be prone to yield unflattering outcomes. One unofficial evaluate, performed by Mr. Trump’s pollster, Tony Fabrizio, concluded that Mr. Trump had shed important assist due to his dealing with of the coronavirus pandemic, with notably damaging losses amongst white voters.

Up to now, Democratic makes an attempt at self-scrutiny have tended to yield considerably mushy conclusions geared toward avoiding controversy throughout the occasion’s multifarious coalition.

The Democratic Celebration briefly appeared headed for a public reckoning in November, because the occasion absorbed its setbacks within the Home and its failure to unseat a number of Republican senators whom Democrats had seen as ripe for defeat.

A gaggle of centrist Home members blamed left-wing rhetoric about democratic socialism and defunding the police for his or her losses in plenty of conservative-leaning suburbs and rural districts. Days after the election, Consultant Abigail Spanberger of Virginia stated the occasion ought to surrender the phrase “socialism,” drawing pushback from progressives like Consultant Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez of New York.

That airing of variations didn’t final lengthy: Democrats shortly closed ranks in response to Mr. Trump’s assaults on the 2020 election, and occasion unity hardened after the Jan. 5 runoff elections in Georgia and the Jan. 6 assault on the Capitol. However there are nonetheless important inner disagreements about marketing campaign technique.

It has been eight years since both political occasion performed a wide-ranging self-assessment that beneficial thorough modifications in construction and technique. After the 2012 election, when Republicans misplaced the presidential race and gave up seats in each chambers of Congress, the Republican Nationwide Committee empaneled a job pressure that known as for main modifications to the occasion group.

The so-called 2012 post-mortem additionally beneficial that the G.O.P. embrace the reason for immigration reform, warning that the occasion confronted a bleak demographic future if it didn’t enhance its place with communities of colour. That advice was successfully discarded after Home Republicans blocked a bipartisan immigration deal handed by the Senate, after which totally obliterated by Mr. Trump’s presidential candidacy.

Henry Barbour, a member of the R.N.C. who co-authored the committee’s post-2012 evaluation, stated it will be sensible for each events to contemplate their political positioning after the 2020 election. He stated Democrats had succeeded within the election by working towards Mr. Trump however that the occasion’s leftward shift had alienated in any other case winnable voters, together with some Black, Hispanic and Asian-American communities that shifted incrementally towards Mr. Trump.

“They’re working off numerous middle-class People who work arduous for a dwelling out within the heartland, or in large cities or suburbs,” Mr. Barbour stated. “A part of that’s as a result of Democrats have run too far to the left.”

Mr. Barbour stated Republicans, too, ought to take a cleareyed take a look at their 2020 efficiency. Mr. Trump, he stated, had not executed sufficient to broaden his attraction past a big and constant minority of voters.

“The Republican Celebration has bought to do higher than that,” he stated. “We’re not only a occasion of 1 president.”

Along with the four-way evaluate on the Democratic aspect, there are a number of narrower tasks underway targeted on addressing deficiencies in polling.

Democratic and Republican officers alike discovered severe shortcomings of their survey analysis, particularly polling in Home races that didn’t anticipate how shut Republicans would come to retaking the bulk. Each events emerged from the marketing campaign feeling that that they had considerably misjudged the panorama of aggressive Home races, with Democrats shedding seats unexpectedly and Republicans maybe having missed an opportunity to seize the chamber in consequence.

The chief Republican and Democratic tremendous PACs targeted on Home races — the Congressional Management Fund and Home Majority PAC — are each within the technique of finding out their 2020 polling and debating modifications for the 2022 marketing campaign, folks acquainted with their efforts stated.

The Congressional Management Fund, a Republican group, is claimed to be enterprise a considerably extra in depth evaluate of its spending and messaging, although it’s not anticipated to situation any form of bigger analysis for the occasion. “We’d be silly to not take a severe take a look at what labored, what didn’t work and how one can evolve and advance,” stated Dan Conston, the group’s president.

A number of of the most important Democratic polling corporations are additionally conferring recurrently with one another in an effort to deal with gaps within the 2020 analysis. Two folks concerned within the conversations stated there was basic settlement that the business needed to replace its practices earlier than 2022 to guarantee Democratic leaders that they might not be caught abruptly once more.

Anna Greenberg, a Democratic pollster concerned in reviewing analysis from the final cycle, stated that the occasion was solely now digging extra deeply into the outcomes of the 2020 election as a result of the previous few months had been dominated by different crises.

A number of Democratic and Republican strategists cautioned that each events confronted a problem in formulating a plan for 2022: It had been greater than a decade, she stated, since a midterm marketing campaign had not been dominated by a larger-than-life presidential persona. Primarily based on the expertise of the 2020 marketing campaign, it’s not clear that Mr. Biden is destined to turn out to be such a polarizing determine.

“It’s arduous to know what an election’s like with out an Obama or a Trump,” Ms. Greenberg stated, “simply regular, common, odd folks working.”