Since Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of Canada called a snap election final month — two years forward of schedule — he has struggled to clarify why he thinks it’s vital.

The final common election, in 2019, left his Liberal Celebration in a weakened place, capable of govern solely with the assist of opposition lawmakers in Parliament. This time, Mr. Trudeau says, he wants a robust mandate to deliver the pandemic below management and lead Canada to financial restoration.

However his rivals have referred to as the election an influence seize — and an pointless one, since Mr. Trudeau has largely been capable of enact his legislative agenda.

In addition they stated it was reckless to carry an election at a time when coronavirus instances are rising and restrictions are being reimposed.

Nonetheless, Mr. Trudeau is hoping that the 36-day marketing campaign — the shortest election interval allowed by legislation — pays off with the bulk that eluded his get together final time. The Liberals had been heading into Election Day in a statistical tie with their major opponents, the Conservative Celebration, led by Erin O’Toole.

Throughout the quick marketing campaign, Mr. Trudeau has argued that solely a majority Liberal authorities can beat the coronavirus and set a path to restoration. However the different events have supported his pandemic response all alongside, together with his plans for vaccine procurement and supply, and his well-liked financial assist packages.

The general public authorised, too. The Liberals’ standing rose within the polls, and Mr. Trudeau’s private approval rankings soared. Most political analysts say he referred to as the election to reap the benefits of that reputation, reasonably than threat an election two years from now, when reminiscences might have light.

If that was the thought, it appears to have backfired. Since he referred to as the election, Mr. Trudeau’s ballot numbers, and his get together’s, have fallen.

On the marketing campaign path, his rivals have attacked his character (as they’ve all through his political career), pointing to a sequence of moral missteps and accusing him of placing his pursuits above the nation’s.

Nonetheless, Mr. Trudeau — a Canadian superstar since his start in 1971, when his father, Pierre Elliott Trudeau, was prime minister — has drawn giant crowds to his rallies, with folks desperate to pose for selfies with him.

Canada has one of many world’s highest vaccination charges, however in some areas, the Delta variant has pushed case numbers up and hospitals are near capability. The western province of Alberta, which had lifted its restrictions, reimposed most of them throughout the marketing campaign. Public well being leaders are actually warning of a fourth wave.

Mr. Trudeau helps vaccine mandates for journey and for federal employees, in addition to vaccine passports. Mr. O’Toole opposes them.

Local weather change: Since Mr. Trudeau first took workplace in 2015, he has made local weather change a high precedence, introducing, amongst different measures, a nationwide carbon tax.

The Conservatives, who opposed such taxes for years, got here to this marketing campaign with their first carbon tax plan. Many analysts have referred to as it insufficient, however its existence made it not possible for Mr. Trudeau to color the get together as unwilling to take any motion in any respect on international warming.

Gun management: In the beginning of the marketing campaign, Mr. O’Toole promised to repeal a ban on 1,500 totally different fashions of military-style assault rifles. However Mr. O’Toole appeared to desert that plan shortly; polling in Canada persistently exhibits robust assist for tight gun restrictions.

The economic system: Canada has recovered practically all the roles misplaced by the pandemic. Mr. Trudeau’s pandemic spending on vaccines and financial assist, although, has left giant money owed and deficits. After criticizing these deficits, Mr. O’Toole unveiled comparable spending plans. He additionally promised to stability the funds inside 10 years, a time-frame that the majority economists say is simply too distant to be credible.

The election itself: In some methods, Mr. Trudeau’s choice to carry an election throughout a pandemic has crowded out different questions dealing with the nation. Throughout the candidates’ latest French-language debate, the topic got here up 13 instances.

Even earlier than this marketing campaign, the Conservatives had persistently pounded Mr. Trudeau over China, arguing that he had been ineffective in coping with Beijing.

China’s incarceration of two Canadian businessmen — Michael Kovrig and Michael Spavor — has been a supply of stress for nearly three years. It has been seen as retaliation for Canada’s detention, at the US’ request, of Meng Wanzhou, a senior government on the Chinese language tech large Huawei.

After Mr. O’Toole stated in a debate that Mr. Trudeau was not robust sufficient with China, the prime minister retorted, “If you wish to get the Michaels residence, you don’t merely lob tomatoes throughout the Pacific.”

Afghanistan has additionally been a problem. Mr. Trudeau referred to as the snap election the identical weekend that Kabul fell to the Taliban. His opponents stated the timing interfered with Canada’s mission to rescue Afghan refugees and criticized the federal government for not performing earlier to assist them.

Mr. Trudeau’s relationship with former President Donald J. Trump was famously antagonistic. Mr. Trump referred to as him “very dishonest and weak,” and imposed commerce sanctions on Canada, arguing that its metal and aluminum exports had been a menace to American nationwide safety. Relations between Canada and the US have calmed since President Biden got here to workplace, and the difficulty was hardly ever raised throughout the marketing campaign.

Mr. O’Toole has criticized the prime minister for Canada’s absence from a brand new safety alliance between Canada, Britain and the US that was a part of a deal to promote nuclear submarines to Australia. Mr. Trudeau has stated that Canada isn’t out there for nuclear submarines, and that the association doesn’t detract from current alliances.

Within the months main as much as the election, Canadians had been shocked by the invention of hundreds of unmarked graves at former residential faculties for Indigenous kids. The discoveries renewed a national discussion about reconciliation with Canada’s Indigenous communities, which has been one other of Mr. Trudeau’s high priorities.

Jagmeet Singh of the left-of-center New Democratic Celebration has accused Mr. Trudeau’s authorities of dealing too slowly with Indigenous issues, as with a missed goal to deliver clean drinking water to all reserve communities inside 5 years.

All 338 of Canada’s electoral districts, every represented by a member of the Home of Commons, will maintain an election right this moment. The get together that wins probably the most seats will get to type the federal government and make its chief the prime minister.

Canadians have 12 hours to vote. The final polls shut in British Columbia at 7 p.m. Pacific time, or 10 p.m. Japanese. However Canadian elections are typically determined in Ontario and Quebec, probably the most populous provinces.

Canada nonetheless votes with paper ballots and pencils, and so they all have to be counted by hand earlier than the outcomes turn out to be clear effectively into Monday night or early Tuesday morning.